Liber Latinus

Latin in translation

Public International Law Notes

Here are my notes for Public International Law (LAWS1023, Sydney Law School LLB, Semester 1 2014).

Topic 1: Introduction to PIL

Topic 2: Sources of PIL

Topic 3: Treaties

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

Topic 4: PIL and Municipal Law

Topic 5: Jurisdiction

Topic 6 Part A: Diplomatic Immunity

Topic 6 Part B: Foreign State Immunity

Topic 6 Part C: Immunity for Heads and Ministers of Foreign States

Topic 7 Part A: State Responsibility

Topic 7 Part B: Mistreatment of Foreign Nationals

Topic 8: Use of Force

Topic 9: Dispute Resolution

Petron. Sat. 42

Ego, inquit, non cotidie lavor; baliscus enim fullo est: aqua dentes habet, et cor nostrum cotidie liquescit.

“I myself do not bathe every day,” Seleucus said. “The bath attendant scours you like a fuller, the water bites, and my heart is melted away.”

Cicero Fam. 7.30: ego vero iam te nec hortor nec rogo


ego vero iam te nec hortor nec rogo ut domum redeas; quin hinc ipse evolare cupio et aliquo pervenire, ‘ubi nec Pelopidarum nomen nec facta audiam.’ incredibile est quam turpiter mihi facere videar, qui his rebus intersim. ne tu videris multo ante providisse quid impenderet, tum cum hinc profugisti. quamquam haec etiam auditu acerba sunt, tamen audire tolerabilius est quam videre. in campo certe non fuisti, cum hora secunda comitiis quaestoriis institutis sella Q. Maximi, quem illi consulem esse dicebant, posita esset; quo mortuo nuntiato sella sublata est. ille autem, qui comitiis tributis esset auspicatus, centuriata habuit, consulem hora septima renuntiavit, qui usque ad K. Ian. esset quae erant futurae mane postridie. ita Caninio consule scito neminem prandisse. nihil tamen eo consule mali factum est; fuit enim mirifica vigilantia, qui suo toto consulatu somnum non viderit.

haec tibi ridicula videntur; non enim ades. quae si videres, lacrimas non teneres. quid, si cetera scribam? sunt enim innumerabilia generis eiusdem; quae quidem ego non ferrem, nisi me in philosophiae portum contulissem et nisi haberem socium studiorum meorum Atticum nostrum. cuius quoniam proprium te esse scribis mancipio et nexo, meum autem usu et fructu, contentus isto sum. id enim est cuiusque proprium, quo quisque fruitur atque utitur. sed haec alias pluribus.

Acilius, qui in Graeciam cum legionibus missus est, maximo meo beneficiost (bis enim est a me iudicio capitis rebus salvis defensus) et est homo non ingratus meque vehementer observat. ad eum de te diligentissime scripsi eamque epistulam cum hac epistula coniunxi. quam ille quo modo acceperit et quid tibi pollicitus sit velim ad me scribas.

Cicero to Curius. Rome, 44 BC.

Well I don’t ask or urge you to come home anymore. I’m longing to fly off, and to arrive someplace “where I can’t hear the name or deeds of Pelopidae“. You wouldn’t believe how disgusting I feel when I meddle in these things. But you saw the writing on the wall, before you escaped.

This is harsh to hear about, but that’s still easier than seeing it happen. You weren’t in the campus for the opening of the comitia for the election of quaestors at seven in the morning. This is when the official chair of Quintus Maximus, who they had declared consul, was set in its place. Then his death was announced and the chair was put away. Then Caesar, despite taking the auspices for the comitia tributa, held a comitia centuriata, and by one o’clock had announced the election of a consul, who would hold office until the morning of the first of January — the next day! So I can inform you that nobody had lunch during the consulship of Caninius. And nothing bad happened in that consulship. In fact the consul was extraordinarily watchful, as he didn’t catch a wink of sleep in the whole consulship.

You probably think this is a joke, but you aren’t here to see it. If you saw it, you wouldn’t be able to contain your tears. What if I told you the rest? Because there are countless examples of this sort of thing. I wouldn’t be able to take it if I hadn’t turned to the refuge of philosophy and if I didn’t have my friend Atticus as a partner in my studies. Since you say he’s yours officially and by ownership, but mine in using and enjoying him. And indeed, what one uses and enjoys is his property. But more on this later.

Acilius, who was sent into Greece with the legions, is very much indebted to me (in fact I successfully defended him twice on capital charges). He isn’t an ungrateful man, and he pays me earnest respect. I have written keenly to him about you, and I’ve attached that letter to this letter. Please write and tell me how he has taken it and what he’s offered to do for you.

Cicero Fam. 8.7: quam cito tu istinc decedere


quam cito tu istinc decedere cupias nescio; ego quidem eo magis, quo adhuc felicius res gessisti, dum istic eris, de belli Parthici periculo cruciabor, ne hunc risum meum metus aliqui perturbet. breviores has litteras properanti publicanorum tabellario subito dedi; tuo liberto pluribus verbis scriptas pridie dederam.

res autem novae nullae sane acciderunt, nisi haec vis tibi scribi, quae certe vis: Cornificius adulescens Orestillae filiam sibi despondit; Paula Valeria, soror Triari, divortium sine causa, quo die vir e provincia venturus erat, fecit nuptura est D. Bruto. mundum rettuleras. multa in hoc genere incredibilia te absente acciderunt. Servius Ocella nemini persuasisset se moechum esse, nisi triduo bis deprensus esset. quaeres, ubi. Ubi hercules ego minime vellem. relinquo tibi quod ab aliis quaeras; neque enim displicet mihi imperatorem singulos percontari cum qua sit aliqui deprensus.

Caelius to Cicero. Rome, 50 BC.

I don’t know how soon you wish to leave from where you are. I for one, am tormented all the more by the danger of a Parthian war when your achievements have been more successful to this point, for fear that some dread should disturb this laughter I have. This letter is shorter than usual, but I gave it to a messenger of the publicani who was in a hurry; yesterday I gave a longer letter to your freedman.

What’s more, nothing new has happened at all, unless you want me to tell you these little tidbits (which I’m sure you do). Cornificius promised Orestilla he’d marry his daughter! And Paula Valeria (Triarus’ daughter), got a divorce without cause, on the day that her husband left his province, so that she could marry Decimus Brutus. She gave him back her whole wardrobe.

Lots of these incredible things have happened in your absence. Servius Ocella wouldn’t have convinced anyone that he wasn’t an adulterer if he hadn’t been caught in the act twice in three days! Where, you ask? God, it was the very last place I would want. I’ll leave that one for others to tell. And I quite like the idea of a general interrogating one person after another about which woman’s someone been caught with.

Cicero Fam. 7.9: iam diu ignoro


iam diu ignoro quid agas; nihil enim scribis; neque ego ad te bis duobus mensibus scripseram. quod cum Quinto fratre meo non eras, quo mitterem aut cui darem nesciebam. cupio scire quid agas et ubi sis hiematurus; equidem velim cum Caesare, sed ad eum propter eius luctum nihil sum ausus scribere; ad Balbum tamen scripsi. tu tibi desse noli: —

“serius potius ad nos, dum plenior”

quod huc properes, nihil est, praesertim Battara mortuo. sed tibi consilium non dest. quid constitueris, cupio scire. Cn. Octavius est an Cn. Cornelius quidam, tuus familiaris, summo genere natus, terrae filius. is me quia scit tuum familiarem esse, crebro ad cenam invitat. adhuc non potuit perducere, sed mihi tamen gratum est.

Cicero to Trebatius. Rome, October 54 BC.

It’s been a long time since I heard how you were going, as you don’t write, nor have I written to you for two months. I didn’t know where to send a letter or who to give it to, as you weren’t with my brother Quintus. I’m keen to know what you’re doing and where you’ll spend the winter. I think it should be with Caesar, but I haven’t dared to send him anything because of his grief. But I wrote to Balbus nonetheless. Don’t despair of yourself! —

“Better return to us later, with your pockets filled”

There’s no reason to hurry home, especially now that Battara is dead. But you don’t lack a plan. I’m interested to know what you’ve decided on.

There is a certain Cn. Octavius (or Cn. Cornelius), a friend of yours, comes from old money (‘of the land’, so to speak). He keeps asking me to dinner because he knows I’m your friend. He hasn’t managed it so far, but I’m grateful for it anyway.

Cato Maior, De Sumptu Suo fr. 173: Vide sis quo loco

Vide sis quo loco re[s] p. siet, uti quod rei p. bene fecissem, unde gratiam capiebam, nunc idem illud memorare non audeo, ne invidiae siet. ita inductum est male facere inpoene, bene facere non inpoene licere.

See now, if you would, the condition the state is in, where, for fear of unpopularity, I dare not recall all the good I did for the state, from which I used to earn gratitude. So the practice has been introduced to allow one to do evil with impunity, but not to allow one to do good with impunity.

Cato Maior, De Suis Virtutibus fr. 128: Ego iam a principio

Ego iam a principio in parsimonia atque in duritia atque industria omnem adulescentiam meam abstinui agro colendo, saxis Sabinis silicibus repastinandis atque conserendis.

I spent my whole youth, from the very beginning, in thrift and hardship and industry, scrimping and saving when tilling the land, digging and sowing over the rocks in Sabine fields.

Livy XXXII. 9. 1-5: Consulem T. Quinctium

Consulem T. Quinctium ita habito dilectu, ut eos fere legeret, qui in Hispania aut Africa meruissent, spectatae virtutis milites, properantem in provinciam prodigia nuntiata atque eorum procuratio Romae tenuerunt. De caelo tacta erant via publica Veis, forum et aedes Iovis Lanuvi, Herculis aedes Ardeae, Capuae murus et turres et aedes, quae alba dicitur; caelum ardere visum erat Arreti; terra Velitris trium iugerum spatio caverna ingenti desederat; Suessae Auruncae nuntiabant agnum cum duobus capitibus natum et Sinuessae porcum cum humano capite.

Eorum prodigiorum causa supplicatio unum diem habita, et consules rebus divinis operam dederunt placatisque diis in provincias profecti sunt.

Just as the Consul T. Quinctius had selected, for the most part, soldiers of demonstrated courage, those who had proved themselves in Spain or Africa, reports of omens and their expiation for Rome prevented him from departing quickly to his province. Lightning struck a public highway at Veii, the forum and temple of Jupiter at Lanuvium, the temple of Hercules at Ardea, and the temple they call “the white temple”, and its towers and walls. The sky was seen ablaze at Arretium; at Velitrae, the earth sunk into a massive cavern, three iugera large; at Suessa Aurunca, a lamb was born with two heads, and at Sinuessa, a pig with a human head was born.

Due to these portents, one day of prayer was proclaimed, and the consuls completed the sacrifices, and set forth to their provinces, having appeased the gods.

Cato Maior, De Ptolomaeo Minore fr. 177: Sed si omnia dolo fecit

Sed si omnia dolo fecit omnia avaritiae atque pecuniae causa fecit, eiusmodi scelera nefaria, quae neque fando neque legendo audivimus, supplicium pro factis dare oportet

But if he did everything craftily, if he did everything for the sake of greed and money, such heinous crimes as we have never heard of in speech or writing, then he must pay the penalty for those deeds.

Mart. 4.20: Dicit se vetulam

Dicit se vetulam, cum sit Caerellia pupa:
pupam se dicit Gellia, cum sit anus.
Ferre nec hanc possis, possis, Colline, nec illam:
altera ridicula est, altera putidula.

Caerellia says she’s an old lady, though she’s just a doll:
Gellia says she is a doll, although she’s an old woman.
You can’t sustain the latter, Collinus, nor the former:
one is absurd, the other nauseating.


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