Liber Latinus

Latin in translation

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.437–453: non illum Cereris, non illum cura quietis

Non illum Cereris, non illum cura quietis
abstrahere inde potest, sed opaca fusus in herba
spectat inexpleto mendacem lumine formam,
perque oculos perit ipse suos; paulumque levatus
ad circumstantes tendens sua bracchia silvas
“ecquis, io silvae, crudelius” inquit “amavit?
Scitis enim, et multis latebra opportuna fuistis.
Ecquem, cum vestrae tot agantur saecula vitae,
qui sic tabuerit, longo meministis in aevo?
Et placet et video; sed quod videoque placetque,
non tamen invenio: tantus tenet error amantem.
Quoque magis doleam, nec nos mare separat ingens,
nec via nec montes nec clausis moenia portis:
exigua prohibemur aqua. Cupit ipse teneri:
nam quotiens liquidis porreximus oscula lymphis,
hic totiens ad me resupino nititur ore.
Posse putes tangi: minimum est, quod amantibus obstat.
Quisquis es, huc exi! quid me, puer unice, fallis,
quove petitus abis? certe nec forma nec aetas
est mea quam fugias, et amarunt me quoque nymphae.
Spem mihi nescio quam vultu promittis amico,
cumque ego porrexi tibi bracchia, porrigis ultro:
cum risi, adrides; lacrimas quoque saepe notavi
me lacrimante tuas, nutu quoque signa remittis,
et quantum motu formosi suspicor oris,
verba refers aures non pervenientia nostras.

No worry of food or thought can draw him thence, but, stretched out on the shaded grass, he gazes on that false image with insatiable eyes, and through his very own eyes he perishes. Raising himself a little, and stretching his arms to the woods around him, he said: “Did anyone, O woods, love more cruelly than I have? You would know, for you have been a fitting hiding-place for many. Do you remember, in ages past—for you have lived a life of so many centuries—remember anyone who wasted away like this? He pleases me and I see, but what I see and what pleases me, I cannot find: such a delusion holds the beloved. And my sorrow is all the more that there is no mighty ocean which separates us, no long road, no mountain ranges, no city walls with their gates shut; we are just kept apart by a bit of water. He longs to be embraced. For as often as I stretch my lips to the clear waters, he also strives to do the same with his upturned face. You would think he could be touched, so little it is that stands in the way of us lovers. Whoever you are, come out! Why do elude me, you unique boy? Where do you go off to when I try to reach you? Surely you would not flee me on account of my looks or my age; even the nymphs have loved me. You promise me some hope with your friendly expression, and then when I stretch out my arms to you, you stretch out yours; when I laugh, you laugh back; and I have often seen your tears when I am crying; you also return my signs with a nod; and, as I suspect from the movement of your beautiful lips, you answer me with words that do not arrive at my ears.

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.95-114: dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis

Dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis,
vox subito audita est; neque erat cognoscere promptum
unde, sed audita est: “Quid, Agenore nate, peremptum
serpentem spectas? et tu spectabere serpens.”
Ille diu pavidus pariter cum mente colorem
perdiderat, gelidoque comae terrore rigebant.
Ecce viri fautrix, superas delapsa per auras,
Pallas adest motaeque iubet supponere terrae
vipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri.
Paret et, ut presso sulcum patefecit aratro,
spargit humi iussos, mortalia semina, dentes.

Inde (fide maius) glaebae coepere moveri,
primaque de sulcis acies apparuit hastae,
tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono,
mox umeri pectusque onerataque bracchia telis
exsistunt, crescitque seges clipeata virorum.
Sic ubi tolluntur festis aulaea theatris,
surgere signa solent primumque ostendere vultus,
cetera paulatim, placidoque educta tenore
tota patent imoque pedes in margine ponunt.

While the conqueror gazed upon the immensity of his conquered enemy, a voice was heard. And he does not know whence it comes, but it is heard: “Why do you look upon the slain serpent, Cadmus? You too will be a serpent to be looked upon.” For a long while he stood there, having lost his colour as much as his composure, and his hairs stand up, frozen with fear. But behold his protector, Pallas, gliding down through the high air; she stands beside him and orders him to sow the serpent’s teeth into the ploughed earth, which would one day grow into a nation. He obeys and, as he opens up the furrows with his sunken plough, he sows in the ground the bidden teeth, a human seed.

Then, unbelievably, the earth begins to move, and first, the points of spears appear from the furrows, and then helmets with coloured plumes and then emerge shoulders and chests and arms laden with weapons, and the crop grows with shield-bearing men. So when the curtain is raised at the theatre on festival days, figures rise up: they show first their faces, and then, little by little, all the rest, and with a gentle pace they are wholly brought forth, and lie open, and they place their feet on the very edge.

Ovid, Metamorphoses 3.1-25: iamque deus posita fallacis imagine tauri

iamque deus posita fallacis imagine tauri
se confessus erat Dictaeaque rura tenebat,
cum pater ignarus Cadmo perquirere raptam
imperat et poenam, si non invenerit, addit
exilium, facto pius et sceleratus eodem.
orbe pererrato (quis enim deprendere possit
furta Iovis?) profugus patriamque iramque parentis
vitat Agenorides Phoebique oracula supplex
consulit et, quae sit tellus habitanda, requirit.
‘bos tibi’ Phoebus ait ‘solis occurret in arvis,
nullum passa iugum curvique inmunis aratri.
hac duce carpe vias et, qua requieverit herba,
moenia fac condas Boeotiaque illa vocato.’
vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro,
incustoditam lente videt ire iuvencam
nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem.
subsequitur pressoque legit vestigia gressu
auctoremque viae Phoebum taciturnus adorat.
iam vada Cephisi Panopesque evaserat arva:
bos stetit et tollens speciosam cornibus altis
ad caelum frontem mugitibus inpulit auras
atque ita respiciens comites sua terga sequentis
procubuit teneraque latus submisit in herba.
Cadmus agit grates peregrinaeque oscula terrae
figit et ignotos montes agrosque salutat.

And now the god had lain aside his bull disguise and given himself up, and lived in the Cretan countryside; Cadmus’s father, unaware of this, ordered him to search for the girl, and added the penalty of exile if he not find her — a deed at once dutiful and wicked. Having roamed the globe (for who could find what Jupiter has concealed?), Cadmus as a fugitive evaded both his father’s country and his wrath, and as a supplicant consulted the Phoeban oracle and asked which land is to be settled.

‘A cow will come to meet you in the lone plains,’ Phoebus said, ‘which has never borne yoke, and is free from crooked plough. Wend your way by her guide, and wheresoever she lies to rest upon the grass, see to it you found a city there, and you shall call it Boeotia.’ Scarcely had Cadmus left the Castilian cavern when he saw a young heifer plodding unguarded, bearing no mark of servitude upon her neck. He followed, and tracked her path with checked paces, and silently revered Phoebus for showing the way.

Now that she had passed the fords of Cephisus and the fields of Panope, the cow stood, lifting to the heavens her beautiful head, with tall horns, and filled the air with lowing. And looking back to her partners following her, she kneeled and lowered her flank into the soft grass. Cadmus gave thanks and imprints kisses upon the foreign land, then greeted the unknown mountains and plains.

Public International Law Notes

Here are my notes for Public International Law (LAWS1023, Sydney Law School LLB, Semester 1 2014).

Topic 1: Introduction to PIL

Topic 2: Sources of PIL

Topic 3: Treaties

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

Topic 4: PIL and Municipal Law

Topic 5: Jurisdiction

Topic 6 Part A: Diplomatic Immunity

Topic 6 Part B: Foreign State Immunity

Topic 6 Part C: Immunity for Heads and Ministers of Foreign States

Topic 7 Part A: State Responsibility

Topic 7 Part B: Mistreatment of Foreign Nationals

Topic 8: Use of Force

Topic 9: Dispute Resolution

Petron. Sat. 42

Ego, inquit, non cotidie lavor; baliscus enim fullo est: aqua dentes habet, et cor nostrum cotidie liquescit.

“I myself do not bathe every day,” Seleucus said. “The bath attendant scours you like a fuller, the water bites, and my heart is melted away.”

Cicero Fam. 7.30: ego vero iam te nec hortor nec rogo


ego vero iam te nec hortor nec rogo ut domum redeas; quin hinc ipse evolare cupio et aliquo pervenire, ‘ubi nec Pelopidarum nomen nec facta audiam.’ incredibile est quam turpiter mihi facere videar, qui his rebus intersim. ne tu videris multo ante providisse quid impenderet, tum cum hinc profugisti. quamquam haec etiam auditu acerba sunt, tamen audire tolerabilius est quam videre. in campo certe non fuisti, cum hora secunda comitiis quaestoriis institutis sella Q. Maximi, quem illi consulem esse dicebant, posita esset; quo mortuo nuntiato sella sublata est. ille autem, qui comitiis tributis esset auspicatus, centuriata habuit, consulem hora septima renuntiavit, qui usque ad K. Ian. esset quae erant futurae mane postridie. ita Caninio consule scito neminem prandisse. nihil tamen eo consule mali factum est; fuit enim mirifica vigilantia, qui suo toto consulatu somnum non viderit.

haec tibi ridicula videntur; non enim ades. quae si videres, lacrimas non teneres. quid, si cetera scribam? sunt enim innumerabilia generis eiusdem; quae quidem ego non ferrem, nisi me in philosophiae portum contulissem et nisi haberem socium studiorum meorum Atticum nostrum. cuius quoniam proprium te esse scribis mancipio et nexo, meum autem usu et fructu, contentus isto sum. id enim est cuiusque proprium, quo quisque fruitur atque utitur. sed haec alias pluribus.

Acilius, qui in Graeciam cum legionibus missus est, maximo meo beneficiost (bis enim est a me iudicio capitis rebus salvis defensus) et est homo non ingratus meque vehementer observat. ad eum de te diligentissime scripsi eamque epistulam cum hac epistula coniunxi. quam ille quo modo acceperit et quid tibi pollicitus sit velim ad me scribas.

Cicero to Curius. Rome, 44 BC.

Well I don’t ask or urge you to come home anymore. I’m longing to fly off, and to arrive someplace “where I can’t hear the name or deeds of Pelopidae“. You wouldn’t believe how disgusting I feel when I meddle in these things. But you saw the writing on the wall, before you escaped.

This is harsh to hear about, but that’s still easier than seeing it happen. You weren’t in the campus for the opening of the comitia for the election of quaestors at seven in the morning. This is when the official chair of Quintus Maximus, who they had declared consul, was set in its place. Then his death was announced and the chair was put away. Then Caesar, despite taking the auspices for the comitia tributa, held a comitia centuriata, and by one o’clock had announced the election of a consul, who would hold office until the morning of the first of January — the next day! So I can inform you that nobody had lunch during the consulship of Caninius. And nothing bad happened in that consulship. In fact the consul was extraordinarily watchful, as he didn’t catch a wink of sleep in the whole consulship.

You probably think this is a joke, but you aren’t here to see it. If you saw it, you wouldn’t be able to contain your tears. What if I told you the rest? Because there are countless examples of this sort of thing. I wouldn’t be able to take it if I hadn’t turned to the refuge of philosophy and if I didn’t have my friend Atticus as a partner in my studies. Since you say he’s yours officially and by ownership, but mine in using and enjoying him. And indeed, what one uses and enjoys is his property. But more on this later.

Acilius, who was sent into Greece with the legions, is very much indebted to me (in fact I successfully defended him twice on capital charges). He isn’t an ungrateful man, and he pays me earnest respect. I have written keenly to him about you, and I’ve attached that letter to this letter. Please write and tell me how he has taken it and what he’s offered to do for you.

Cicero Fam. 8.7: quam cito tu istinc decedere


quam cito tu istinc decedere cupias nescio; ego quidem eo magis, quo adhuc felicius res gessisti, dum istic eris, de belli Parthici periculo cruciabor, ne hunc risum meum metus aliqui perturbet. breviores has litteras properanti publicanorum tabellario subito dedi; tuo liberto pluribus verbis scriptas pridie dederam.

res autem novae nullae sane acciderunt, nisi haec vis tibi scribi, quae certe vis: Cornificius adulescens Orestillae filiam sibi despondit; Paula Valeria, soror Triari, divortium sine causa, quo die vir e provincia venturus erat, fecit nuptura est D. Bruto. mundum rettuleras. multa in hoc genere incredibilia te absente acciderunt. Servius Ocella nemini persuasisset se moechum esse, nisi triduo bis deprensus esset. quaeres, ubi. Ubi hercules ego minime vellem. relinquo tibi quod ab aliis quaeras; neque enim displicet mihi imperatorem singulos percontari cum qua sit aliqui deprensus.

Caelius to Cicero. Rome, 50 BC.

I don’t know how soon you wish to leave from where you are. I for one, am tormented all the more by the danger of a Parthian war when your achievements have been more successful to this point, for fear that some dread should disturb this laughter I have. This letter is shorter than usual, but I gave it to a messenger of the publicani who was in a hurry; yesterday I gave a longer letter to your freedman.

What’s more, nothing new has happened at all, unless you want me to tell you these little tidbits (which I’m sure you do). Cornificius promised Orestilla he’d marry his daughter! And Paula Valeria (Triarus’ daughter), got a divorce without cause, on the day that her husband left his province, so that she could marry Decimus Brutus. She gave him back her whole wardrobe.

Lots of these incredible things have happened in your absence. Servius Ocella wouldn’t have convinced anyone that he wasn’t an adulterer if he hadn’t been caught in the act twice in three days! Where, you ask? God, it was the very last place I would want. I’ll leave that one for others to tell. And I quite like the idea of a general interrogating one person after another about which woman’s someone been caught with.

Cicero Fam. 7.9: iam diu ignoro


iam diu ignoro quid agas; nihil enim scribis; neque ego ad te bis duobus mensibus scripseram. quod cum Quinto fratre meo non eras, quo mitterem aut cui darem nesciebam. cupio scire quid agas et ubi sis hiematurus; equidem velim cum Caesare, sed ad eum propter eius luctum nihil sum ausus scribere; ad Balbum tamen scripsi. tu tibi desse noli: —

“serius potius ad nos, dum plenior”

quod huc properes, nihil est, praesertim Battara mortuo. sed tibi consilium non dest. quid constitueris, cupio scire. Cn. Octavius est an Cn. Cornelius quidam, tuus familiaris, summo genere natus, terrae filius. is me quia scit tuum familiarem esse, crebro ad cenam invitat. adhuc non potuit perducere, sed mihi tamen gratum est.

Cicero to Trebatius. Rome, October 54 BC.

It’s been a long time since I heard how you were going, as you don’t write, nor have I written to you for two months. I didn’t know where to send a letter or who to give it to, as you weren’t with my brother Quintus. I’m keen to know what you’re doing and where you’ll spend the winter. I think it should be with Caesar, but I haven’t dared to send him anything because of his grief. But I wrote to Balbus nonetheless. Don’t despair of yourself! —

“Better return to us later, with your pockets filled”

There’s no reason to hurry home, especially now that Battara is dead. But you don’t lack a plan. I’m interested to know what you’ve decided on.

There is a certain Cn. Octavius (or Cn. Cornelius), a friend of yours, comes from old money (‘of the land’, so to speak). He keeps asking me to dinner because he knows I’m your friend. He hasn’t managed it so far, but I’m grateful for it anyway.

Cato Maior, De Sumptu Suo fr. 173: Vide sis quo loco

Vide sis quo loco re[s] p. siet, uti quod rei p. bene fecissem, unde gratiam capiebam, nunc idem illud memorare non audeo, ne invidiae siet. ita inductum est male facere inpoene, bene facere non inpoene licere.

See now, if you would, the condition the state is in, where, for fear of unpopularity, I dare not recall all the good I did for the state, from which I used to earn gratitude. So the practice has been introduced to allow one to do evil with impunity, but not to allow one to do good with impunity.

Cato Maior, De Suis Virtutibus fr. 128: Ego iam a principio

Ego iam a principio in parsimonia atque in duritia atque industria omnem adulescentiam meam abstinui agro colendo, saxis Sabinis silicibus repastinandis atque conserendis.

I spent my whole youth, from the very beginning, in thrift and hardship and industry, scrimping and saving when tilling the land, digging and sowing over the rocks in Sabine fields.


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